Cavalry could not operate in these conditions and control of the water was crucial, which Cortés did not realize at first. However, the Aztecs refused. However, the Aztecs were successful in setting an ambush with thirty of their pirogues in an area in which they had placed impaling stakes. His new followers were greatly disturbed at the power of the Aztecs, and held Cortés to be a liar since nobody revered them and brought them food and gifts as Cortés had promised. :404 Cortés demanded the return of the gold lost during La Noche Triste. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 163–64. ), Alberto Beltran (illus. They honored this god during the onset of the dry season so that the god would fill dry streambeds and cause rain to fall on crops. They had no new troops, supplies, food, nor water. , Moctezuma sent a group of noblemen and other emissaries to meet Cortés at Quauhtechcac. It is estimated that around 1,800 Spaniards died from all causes during the two-year campaign—from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan. , Cortés continued on his march towards Tenochtitlan.  The situation inside the city was desperate: because of the famine and the smallpox there were already thousands of victims, women offered to the gods even their children's clothes, so most children were stark naked.  The Aztec forces managed to push back the Spanish and halt this assault on the capital with a determined and hard-fought land and naval counterattack. Thereafter, Cortés had a personal guard of six soldiers, under the command of Antonio de Quiñones. One account says a woman fetching water saw them and alerted the city, another says it was a sentry. By marshalling on an open plain, they also allowed experienced Spanish commanders to bring to bear their own tactics, weaponry, and the know-how of European warfare. Una poderosa narrativa visual y una profunda investigación iconográfica se conjugan para recrear en todo su esplendor la gloria del imperio mexica y los horrores de la guerra que llevó a su perdición. Unprepared for enemy tactics. , The massacre had the result of resolutely turning all the Aztecs against the Spanish and completely undermining Moctezuma's authority. Neither our precautions nor our warnings could stop their looting, though we did all we could...I had posted Spaniards in every street, so that when the people began to come out [to surrender] they might prevent our allies from killing those wretched people, whose numbers was uncountable. Oxford: Oxford University Press. , 100,000 to 240,000 were killed in the campaign overall including warriors and civilians. En determinadas ocasiones, la importancia de una ciudad es capaz de sobrepasar una civilización, siendo capaz de ser relevante para más de una cultura y sobrepasar los límites de las conquistas y cambios de … ", Cortés then decided to push forward a simultaneous attack towards the Mexican market square. He tortured priests and nobles and discovered that the Aztecs were planning a revolt. "Hernando Cortés" by Jacobs, W.J., New York, N.Y.:Franklin Watts, Inc. 1974. to be an invention of the conquerors, and perhaps natives who wished to rationalize the actions of the Aztec tlatoani, Moctezuma II. La caída o conquista de Tenochtitlan, la poderosa ciudad capital del entonces imperio Mexica el 13 de agosto de 1521, es el resultado de una mezcla de fuerza militar y sincretismo religioso; la fuerza militar serian las alianzas que en el camino Hernán Cortés lograría de señoríos descontentos con la política de Tlaxcala was an autonomous state, and a fierce enemy of the Aztecs. :309, 311, 324, Cortés then decided to move his army to Texcoco, where he could assemble and launch the sloops in the creeks flowing into Lake Texcoco. Four horsemen were at the lead of the procession. Joseph, Gilbert M. and Henderson, Timothy J. Duke University Press, 2002. Este estaba asentado en Tenochtitlán,ciudad principal del imperio y donde actualmente se encuentra la Ciudad de México. Afterwards, the Aztec "did not dare to lay any more ambuscades, or to bring in food and water as openly as before." The Aztecs intended to cut short the Spanish retreat from Tenochtitlan and annihilate them. It could also have been a tactical move: Moctezuma may have wanted to gather more information on the Spaniards, or to wait for the end of the agricultural season and strike at the beginning of the war season. Yet, little gold remained, as earlier, a fifth had been sent to Spain and another kept by Cortés. Cortés hurriedly quashed this faction, determined to finish what he had started. He was supplied with darts sacred to Huitzilopochtli, which came with wooden tips and flint tops. , Cortés failed to grasp the full extent of the situation, as the attack on the festival was the last straw for the Aztecs, who now were completely against Moctezuma and the Spanish. Cortés was amicably received by Moctezuma. Cano, another primary source, gives 1,150 Spaniards dead, though this figure was likely too high and might encompass the total loss from entering Mexico to arriving into Tlaxcala. Hernán Cortés deja a cargo México-Tenochtitlán a Pedro de Alvarado, ya que el tiene que ir a confrontar a Pánfilo de Narváez. The Tlaxcalan leaders rebuffed the overtures of the Aztec emissaries, deciding to continue their friendship with Cortés.  Almost all of the Aztec nobility were dead, and the remaining survivors were mostly young women and very young children. :364, Cortés was forced to adapt his plans again, as his initial land campaigns were ineffective.  At the end of each day, the Spanish gave a prayer: "Oh, thanks be to God that they did not carry me off today to be sacrificed.  Pedro de Alvarado was wounded along with eight men in his camp.  Two other local rulers were found strangled as well. "The Mexico Reader: History, Culture, Politics". The retreat to Spanish quarters was as hard as the attack, and part of their quarters were plundered in the meantime. In spite of determined opposition, the Spanish push got them to the top of the temple's 114 steps, but at a great loss. Many of these loyal tributaries were surrounded by the Spanish. Hernan Cortés consiguió en poco tiempo el apoyo de los nativos totonacas de la... Alianza de Cortés con los Tlaxcaltecas. , Cortés managed to negotiate an alliance; however, the Tlaxcalans required heavy concessions from Cortés for their continued support, which he was to provide after they defeated the Aztecs. Two thousand warriors returned from Texcoco, as did many Tlaxcan warriors under Tepaneca from Topeyanco, and those from Huejotzingo and Cholula. Cortés aimed at routing the Aztecs and by holding both Moctezuma and the great temple - being able to offer peace once again. They feared a "snowball effect": if one tributary left, others might follow. In fact, the Aztecs sent emissaries promising peace and prosperity if they would do just that. Narváez's troops landed at San Juan de Ulúa on the Gulf of Mexico coast around April 20, 1520. Muchas batallas existieron entre los ejércitos azteca y español, aquel compuesto mayoritariamente por indígenas. León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.) Davis, Paul K. (2003). Yet, of the 24,000 allies, only 200 remained in the three Spanish camps, the rest deciding to return home.  Cortés sent emissaries to negotiate with the Tlatelolcas to join his side, but the Tlatelolcas remained loyal to the Aztecs. Cortés invirtió los primeros meses de su ofensiva en someter o aliarse con pueblos tributarios de los aztecas, como Tepeyac, Yauhtepec y Cuauhnahuac. Before entering the city, on November 8, 1519, Cortés and his troops prepared themselves for battle, armoring themselves and their horses, and arranging themselves in proper military rank. Pero, sobre todo, el apoyo de los tlaxcaltecas. For no race, however savage, has ever practiced such fierce and unnatural cruelty as the natives of these parts. (Diamond 1999: 210), Diamond, Jared M. 1999 Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies. Andrea, Alfred J. and James H. Overfield. If the Spaniards were able to prove they could protect their new allies from the possibility of Aztec retribution, changing sides would not be too difficult for other tributaries. Other Aztec lords were also detained by the Spanish, when they started questioning their captive tlatoani's authority. "Crónica de la Nueva España. Cuitláhuac had been elected as the emperor immediately following Moctezuma's death. The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico, Ángel María Garibay K. (Nahuatl-Spanish trans. [page needed], It was at this event where firsthand accounts were recorded in the Florentine Codex concerning the adverse effects of the smallpox epidemic of the Aztecs, which stated, "many died from this plague, and many others died of hunger.  (1992). With this mindset, Cortés launched an attack directly at the chief temple of the city, the Cue of Huichilopotzli. El 13 de agosto de 1521, tras deliberar con su Consejo, Cuauhtémoc decide rendirse a los españoles con el fin de evitar más sufrimientos. 1521: Agosto 13 - Caída de Tenochtitlan encabezada por Hernán Cortés The sacrifice involved the killing of a young man who had been impersonating the Toxcatl deity for a full year. Cortés intended to blockade Mexico and then destroy it. In addition, Cortés astutely directed his forces in multiple directions in preparing his encirclement of the Aztec capital, and knew how to use the military initiative that he gained after the battle of Otumba. The Spanish allies in the cities surrounding the lake lost many lives or "went home wounded", and "half their canoes were destroyed". Therefore, they brutally crushed any tributaries who tried to send help to Tenochtitlan. :326–32, On 6 April 1521, Cortés met with the caciques around Chalco, and announced he would "bring peace" and blockade Mexico. The Huejotzinco Cacique remained in Sandoval's camp with fifty men. La principal causa de la conquista de Tenochtitlán fue el deseo de los españoles de conquistar nuevos territorios y obtener más recursos económicos. :364–66 Cortés also sent orders to "never on any account to leave a gap unblocked, and that all the horsemen were to sleep on the causeway with their horses saddled and bridled all night long. He ordered the gates closed and initiated the killing of many thousands of Aztec nobles, warriors and priests. He knew that in defeat he would be considered a traitor to Spain, but that in success he would be its hero. It was necessary for him to prove his power and authority to keep the tributaries from revolting. They could not get up and search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds. Así se gestó la caída de Tenochtitlan Los españoles estaban presentes en las Antillas desde 1492; sin embargo, su primer contacto con Mesoamérica fue en 1517 :94:359–60, Cortés faced "more than a thousand canoes" after he launched his thirteen sloops from Texcoco. Trajeron consigo una nueva y diferente cosmovisión, el cristianismo e iniciaron el proceso de […] , Cortés chanced to land at the borders of Cempoala, a recently Aztec-subdued vassal state with many grievances against them. A third daughter died, leaving behind her infant by Cortés, the mysterious second "María" named in his will. With his main headquarters in Texcoco, he could stop his forces from being spread too thin around the lake, and there he could contact them where they needed. 1492 Cristóbal colon llega a América 1502 Moctezuma huei tlatoani 1503 Américo Vespucio afirma que las tierra descubiertas por colon son parte de un nuevo :356 Cortés' forces took up these positions on May 22. They captured two Spanish launches, killing Captains Juan de la Portilla and Pedro Barba. :396, Cortés then ordered a simultaneous advance of all three camps towards the Tlatelolco marketplace. Gonzalo de Sandoval took 24 horsemen, 14 arquebusiers and arbalesters, 150 Spanish foot soldiers, and 8,000 warriors from Chalco and Huexotzinco, accompanied by Luis Marin and Pedro de Ircio, to secure Ixtlapalapan. Thus, prohibiting human sacrifice during this festival was an untenable proposition for the Aztecs. 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