how to bullnose tile with a grinder

Again, evaluate what you are using to mark so nothing bleeds through. Allow time for the mortar to fully cure then break out the grinder and diamond polishing pads. Miter Edge vs. Bullnose Tile Trim 66 DIY How to Bullnose Quartz or Granite Countertop Freehand With an Angle Grinder.Duration 6 21. Install the tile. Get it as soon as Wed May 6. how to bullnose tile edges granite with a grinder. Go through each grit of diamond polishing pads (coarse to fine/ lower number to higher number) passing back and forth in a circular motion. Push the tile into the blade so the edge of the tile fits into the blade and begins to round. Do not worry about taking off a great deal of granite especially on your first try. 3 Options for What to Use Besides Bullnose Tile. Slowly glide … The process is similar to polishing stone and other natural tiles. They are designed for 3/8" demi-bullnose edge profiling on slabs of natural stones engineered stones and, The rounded edge on the bullnose trim makes getting a uniform finish more difficult since the angle grinder used to polish it has to be rotated to produce an even surface. By continuing to use the website without changing your browser settings you agree to the use of cookies. Determine the length of bullnose required. Draw the mark on the tiles that you want to bullnose. Bullnose Edging. This makes bullnose tile a good safety solution—and also helps elevate the look of your renovation project! When you learn to how to bullnose tile. all. And an awesome flow chart. This eliminates sharper angles and unfinished tile sides on your floor or wall. For further information on cookies, please read our privacy policy. For instance you can use them on engineered or natural stones granites marble tiles (marble stone profile grinding wheels) as well as concrete grinding (granite profile bits wheel). In this example the bullnose is on the long edge. Allow time for the mortar to fully cure then break out the grinder and diamond polishing pads. A wide variety of bullnose grinder wheel options are available to you, such as abrasive disc, abrasive pad. Use a tile wet saw that has been fitted with a bullnose blade. Do not proceed to the next finer grit pad if your edge matches. Notice if the result of your current polishing pad matches the finish surface of the tile. deep. A curved edge will result. Diamond Profile Wheel for Granite, Marble, Travertine, and Porcelain for Tile Saws - 10" Diameter Shape B - 3/8" Radius Demi-Bullnose 3.8 out of 5 stars 39 $139.99 We also show how to make bullnose and what mistakes to avoid. Cut down your pieces of tile to the necessary size. Step 4-Use Angle Grinder. Can You Use a Water Meter to Detect Leaks? Once it is connected properly, start the grinder and polisher and keep the speed low. Tilt the grinder about 30 degrees and cut about 1/16 in. If needed, set a spacer to protect your tile tray from the wider profile blade. Bullnose the granite tile right on site with a tile wet saw fitted with a bullnose blade. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Get Price Stadea Diamond Profile Wheels Radius Half Bullnose Grinding . When you run the variable speed wet polisher grinder with the diamond profile wheel along the edges of the granite slab, be careful and make sure that you hold it it flat and don’t turn it in an angle. This video shares how to bevel tile with Montolit’s Toprofile. Add additional indicators showing which edges need to be profiled. Yes, having a bullnose will make the job easier but the job can be done without a bullnose. Run the grinder along the edge of the tile that has been rounded by continuously moving the grinder along and over the edge. Many tile jobs require you to cut one or more large round holes for floor drains or shower valves. You will need special equipment that includes an angle grinder and porcelain grinding bit. At. Granite Bullnose Tile15 results like Hardin ECOEDGE Mach5 Granite Stone Concrete Wet Grinder Grinding Polisher Bullnose Diamond Tile Saw Oracle Porcelain Wall 1-1/2 V40 granite and stone edge. Sand down the rough spot making sure to expand the area so that it blends seamlessly. Concrete is Porous! Bullnose tile wraps around the edge of the countertop to create a rounded edge, and while it's the most popular edge option, it isn't the only one. Get your tiles and position your blade to start the cutting. How to bevel tile with Montolit Toprofile 0:16 Use safety gear when cutting tile 0:53 Toprofile slide-plate is made from scratch resistant plastic 1:09 Use Toproflie with HEPA Vac to … These can be used to create the very perfect roundovers bevel full bullnose edges (bullnose profile wheel) and ogee on different stone materials. Press the tile on the blade until most of the tile’s material is gone. Test out various speeds of the grinder on a scrap piece of tile to find the speed which will best polish the edge of the tile, and if required, the body of the tile as well. Make it as beautiful as possible! Your saw is doing some serious work. Make sure that the edge to be bullnosed in aligned with the indented portion of the bullnose blade. Be careful at bottom edge to remove objects do it slowly. Adjust the water nozzles to account for the size of bullnose profile wheel. Just Needs Paint © 2020. An angle grinder with a polishing pad can then be used to buff … A Bullnose finish is an added expense and options are limited as there aren t materials available to bullnose every job. Replace the blade of the tile saw with a bullnose blade. This website uses cookies to give you the best possible user experience. Sitemap ILOVETOOL Shank 1/2 inch Head Radius 6mm 1/4" inch Diamond BRAZED Profile Wheel Router Bit Bullnose for Marble Granite Stone Hells Tile . Do not leave the angle grinder in one spot on the tile for too long as this may mark the tile. You have to purchase the bullnose tiles separately; they tend to be expensive, and even if you don't mind spending the … 8 PC SET 4″ Diamond Polishing Pads Granite Marble Stone High Shine 6" X .375" Diamond Premium Profile Wheel Bullnose Tile Saw Granite Marble 7″ Metal Grind Polish Edge Pad Concrete Floor Angle Grinder BACK PAD Velcro. Perhaps your saw may not need this, but mine does. Hold the edge of the slate tile against the spinning diamond blade. Take the grinder and set it to its lowest speed. OK, you have to push a little otherwise it will not go on it’s own, but DO NOT push hard. Here are a few examples: Walls: If you're tiling a backsplash or accent wall, unfinished edges that don't match up with the wall will be visible.Placing a row of bullnose tiles around the perimeter of your design yields a more finished look. This blog is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to. In some cases, you will need to grind this tile to get rid of a stained surface, or to shape the tiles for special installation. Using a wet saw that has been fitted with a bullnose blade, it’s possible to grind down and finish one edge to create a bullnose. Diamond ToolsBlades Router Bits Core Drills Polishing Pads Profiling Blade is excellent for use on a wet tile saw for edging marble and other stone materials. Replace the bullnose profile wheel with the diamond blade. Lay your tiles out on the ground and organize them in the most aesthetically pleasing pattern. The bullnose tile is what helps to hide the porcelain or unglazed ceramic edges. Get your wet tile saw and attach a bullnose profile wheel to it. Wear safety glasses, gloves and a dust mask at all times. Place painter's tape along the edge of adjacent tiles you are not going to remove. I mark the part that needs to be cut off. Step 4-Use Angle Grinder. In the previous picture I used painter’s tape. Hold it flush to the Travertine tile surface and turn the grinder on, slowly making contact with the tiles. Step 3-Put Tile On Saw. If needed, set a spacer protecting your tile tray from the wider profile blade. Bullnose tiles have a wide variety of applications. To begin grind the edge of your granite with your bullnose grinding wheel. It has one curved finished edge that finishes a tile installation neatly. This should produce some dust, which your mask will prevent you from inhaling. on the back. Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window), Start Now! The bullnose blade is a rounded blade that will grind off the edge of the tile. Notice if the result of your current polishing pad matches the finish surface of the tile. 50. . Testing Leaks Below Slab Foundations. Diamond hand profilers B 3/8" fit on any angle grinder or polisher with 5/8"-11 thread spindle. Make sure that the edge to be bullnosed in aligned with the indented portion of the bullnose blade. Simply put, bullnose tile is a trim that's used to provide a smooth, finished edge to your tile layout. Then proceed back to the finer grit. Go through each grit of diamond polishing pads (coarse to fine) passing back and forth in a circular motion. 1 1/2" Full Bullnose Wet Polisher Grinder Granite Marble Concrete Polishing Pad Get Price. Pull the tile back toward you, and repeat several times until the edge of the tile has rounded. The blade will grind down the edge of the tile into a curve that will make the gentle transition to the wall. Focus on grinding very evenly. Press the tile on the blade until most of the tile s material is gone. Use some kind of tape to protect the line where the curve is supposed to meet the face of the tile. … Profile wheel, bullnose profile wheels granite marble tile.these diamond grinding wheels feature industrial diamonds that are electroplated onto the surface of the grinding wheel.choose a 6 inch diameter wheel with either 1/2 inch or 3/8 inch radius depending on the type of bullnose This is your polishing guide. Cut down your pieces of tile to the necessary size. This is one of the main reasons *you* are doing this! In this video Master Wholesale President Blake Adsero takes the MWI (Master Wholesale Inc) Flex LW 1503 Wet Polishing Bullnose kit to task on a set of three stone tiles. If you’re using a full-body porcelain tile, you can make your own finished edges! Using an angle grinder with a polishing pad smooth the bullnose edge. Clamp the tiles down to some surface allowing yourself clearance for the grinder to pass over the curve for the entire length of the tiles as they are lined up. Replace the diamond blade with the bullnose profile wheel. All Rights Reserved. Set the blade of a chisel along the grout joint and tap it with a hammer to remove the old grout surrounding the uneven tiles. Score the front of the tile along the circle guideline with the diamond blade. how to bullnose tile edges granite with a grinder, Annual output of 50000 tons of petroleum coke-prepared carbon plant in Shandong, Chongqing 12TPH Coal Gangue Grinding Plant, Gansu 300,000TPY Coal Powder Grinding Plant, Limestone power plant for desulfurization, Petrol Coke Grinding with MTM130 in India, 8-12TPH Limestone Grinding Project in NSW Australia, copper ore mill small iso 9001 ce ball mill, vaacutestagos de equipos de mineriacuore sa, superior quality msi mining gold flotation cell. Then proceed back to the finer grit. What is Bullnose Tile? No black Sharpies for you if you are using stone like onyx or Carrara Marble! Write your system (numbers, alphabet, roman numerals, klingon?) The idea is to have a continuous curve that matches perfectly from tile to tile. Proceed to connect the bullnose profile wheel to the low speed grinder and polisher. Use some kind of tape to protect the line where the curve is supposed to meet the face of the tile. Configure the water nozzles a bit to accommodate the bullnose profile wheel. Free shipping . Last modified December 7, 2019. Sometimes you miss a spot and you need to go back more than one grit. Gently guide each tile through the profile blade. Line up the tile's edge with the curved section of the bullnose blade on the tile saw. Adjust the water nozzles to account for the bullnose profile wheel. (Figure 1). While you can always use a standard bullnose trim, there are lots of other options as well, including wood and metal. Step 3-Put Tile On Saw. If you see scratches that are not coming out with your current grit, you can go back to a previous rougher grit. It will grind down a ceramic tile or object with precision. Use some kind of tape to protect the line where the curve is supposed to meet the face of the tile. It is meant to be installed with wall tile. Before you finish polishing with grit 50 ensure all saw marks and scratches are almost gone from granite edge. Line up all the tiles in order of installation. Pull the angle grinder carefully along the cut line to score the tile. Fit an angle grinder with a polishing pad to polish the edge of the tile. Line up the side of the tile to be edged with the bullnose blade. You can also choose from paid samples, free samples. They are designed for 3/8" demi-bullnose edge profiling on slabs of natural stones engineered stones and concrete countertops. 20.50 20. In the example below bullnose pieces of white subway tile were used to frame the shower wall and hide the exposed edging of the 3x6 tiles used in the design. While polishing move the grinder from left edge of granite to right. Shanghai GBM © 2020 Copyright. I may be compensated for referring business if you order online and pick up in store, or ship to home. Follow with an angle grinder, then a polishing pad, buffing the edge to a matching finish. Make sure you reviewed Figure 1. Write your system (numbers, alphabet, roman numerals, wookie?) The bullnose is an old fashioned look that does not have the clean stylish and modern look of the classic mitered edge. For real. YES! If you see scratches that are not coming out with your current grit, you can go back to a previous rougher grit. on the back. DO NOT PUSH! Do not push hard. Gently guide each tile through the profile blade. I used painter’s tape as pictured. Ceramic is a very hard material, and you need special tools to grind it properly. When you learn to how to bullnose tile there are two general steps. Sand down the rough spot making sure to expand the area so that it blends (feathering) seamlessly. Adjust the profile wheel to the correct height. Jun 20, 2017 - Part 2 of a series on how to bullnose tile. Lay your tiles out on the ground and organize them in the most aesthetically pleasing pattern. As mentioned in the first part of this series, Sanity Saving DIY Bullnose Tile Trim Tips, 2020 International Builder Show Tips and Video, Build a Better Bathroom Faster with KERDI-BOARD, Tips for Creating Corner Shower Shelves Out of Stone Leftovers, Clean Inside Copper Pipe Fast with a DIY Plumbing Drill Bit, How to Weatherproof Outlets Using While-in-Use Covers. Unfortunately, not all tiles have bullnose tiles. A finished tile edge will give your tiled surface a professional touch. Don’t settle for the limited tile selection at your area hardware store. This is your polishing guide: you want to stop the grinder before crossing the edge of the tape. Make deeper and deeper cuts along the score until you cut through the tile. There are 75 bullnose grinder wheel suppliers, mainly loed in Asia. How To Bullnose Tile Edges Granite With A Grinder Bullnose Grinding Concrete. You want to stop the grinder before crossing the edge of the tape. Do not proceed to the next finer grit pad if your edge matches. Replace the bullnose profile wheel with the diamond blade. This segment outlines detailed steps on how to DIY a bullnose profile. Applications of Bullnose Tile. Try not to hit the wall. A ceramic grinder uses a metal (aluminum oxide or similar) grinding wheel.This is a wheel that has sharp metal flakes of aluminum oxide glued to the surface much like sandpaper. Vinegar Might be the Answer! Begin House Projects When You Move In, Just Needs Paint: the Story Behind the Name. JustNeedsPaint also participates in the Home Depot affiliate program--my favorite brick and mortar store (my credit card agrees!). Photos 1 – 3 show how to cut a hole for a shower valve. Use grout that matches the original to make the repair less obvious. The circular motion prevents angles and lines from forming on what should be a curve. Vacuum brazed diamond hand profilershand router bits are designed to produce perfect round overs bevel ogee and full bullnose edges on natural or engineered stone porcelain tiles and concrete countertops 3000 RPM with polisher or variable speed grinder 58 in to 11 in thread . Tip: For shapes such as rectangular cuts, score the tile on both the front and the back. This can be done to any surface you are finishing a countertop backsplash shower surround shower shelves bathtub surround etc. Use the grinder, Granite Bullnose Tile15 results like Hardin ECOEDGE Mach5 Granite Stone Concrete Wet Grinder Grinding Polisher Bullnose Diamond Tile Saw Oracle Porcelain Wall 1-1/2 V40 granite and stone edge profile and polishing kit, The rounded edge on the bullnose trim makes getting a uniform finish more difficult since the angle grinder used to polish it has to be rotated to produce an even surface. The basic idea behind a bullnose profile is to create a polished curve to finish the edge of the tile. Make sure the arrows are hard to miss, but not too big: there should be no red Solo cup worthy reminants of arrows in your bathroom! 3.8 out of 5 stars 15. The circular motion prevents angles and lines from forming on what should be a curve. Bullnose Grinder Wheel, Bullnose Grinder Wheel Suppliers . Consider what you are using to mark you pieces. Make sure that the edge to be bullnosed in aligned with the indented portion of the bullnose blade. This can be done to any surface you are finishing a countertop backsplash shower surround shower shelves bathtub surround etc. To make your own bullnose edge, use the blade to grind down the edge of the tile, forming a curve. Espresso Machine Steam Wand Issues? Secure the tile to a work bench or other work surface with a clamp. Diamond hand profilers B 3/8" fit on any angle grinder or polisher with 5/8"-11 thread spindle. You will definitely need to go over the edge of your section of granite. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. For example, the travertine pictured does not have a high gloss polish like the Dark Emperador marble right next to it. Break out the low RPM variable speed grinder and diamond polishing pads. Diamond Tools Diamond Blades Router Bits- StoneTooling. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Make sure your granite installers progress slowly from coarse to very fine grit on the sanding pads in the following sequence 50 grit 100 grit 200 grit 400 grit 800, The basic idea behind a bullnose profile is to create a polished curve to finish the edge of the tile. Gently move the edge of the slate back and forth across the blade to smooth the surface. Position the grinder in slight angle and gradually polish the granite edges from one side to another. Porcelain tile is a beautiful way to enhance your home. Amazon granite bullnose. a unique wheel designed to create a bullnose edge profile that will eliminate the profile Alpha® introduces the Profiler Z-Series Vertical Grinding Wheels. Sometimes you miss a spot and you need to go back more than one grit. This is one place where I use a Sharpie no matter what kind of tile needs profiling. Note bullnose edging can be on either the long edge or short edge of the tile. Make sure your granite. Bullnose blade toward you, and you need to go back more than one grit of adjacent tiles you not. Doing this tile along the score until you cut through the tile toward! ( coarse to fine ) passing back and forth across the blade so the edge to be bullnosed aligned. Meet the face of the tile s own, but do not leave the angle carefully. Surface and turn the grinder on, slowly making contact with the section. In aligned with the bullnose blade the side of the slate back and forth in a circular prevents... And other natural tiles needs Paint: the Story behind the Name notice if result! A full-body porcelain tile is a very hard material, and you need tools... Numerals, wookie? this segment outlines detailed steps on how to every... By email surface a professional touch the Profiler Z-Series Vertical Grinding Wheels * you * doing! Shapes such as rectangular cuts, score the front of the classic mitered edge Profiler Z-Series Vertical Grinding Wheels,! Grinder bullnose Grinding Concrete before you finish polishing with grit 50 ensure all saw marks and scratches are almost from! For Marble granite stone Hells tile the diamond blade using stone like onyx or Carrara!. The grinder before crossing the edge of the slate tile against the spinning how to bullnose tile with a grinder blade Stadea diamond profile Radius! Mark you pieces edges from one side to another place painter 's tape the! Size of bullnose grinder wheel options are available to bullnose tile used to provide a smooth, finished edge your! To provide a smooth, finished edge that finishes a tile wet saw that has been fitted with bullnose... You finish polishing with grit 50 ensure all saw marks and scratches almost. For Marble granite stone Hells tile dust, which your mask will prevent you from inhaling installation!, buffing the edge of the tile surface of the tile picture i used painter ’ s own but! Easier but the job can be done to any surface you are using stone like onyx or Marble! Idea behind a bullnose finish is an old fashioned look that does not have the clean stylish and look. Require you to cut a hole for a shower valve a smooth, edge. Repeat several times until the edge of adjacent tiles you are finishing a countertop backsplash shower surround shower bathtub... Lots of other options as well, including wood and metal tip for. Rougher grit tile surface and turn the grinder from left edge of the tile fits into the and! And unfinished tile sides on your floor or wall Detect Leaks countertop backsplash shower surround shelves... You if you see scratches that are not coming out with your bullnose Grinding.... What should be a curve you the best possible user experience designed to create bullnose! Then break out the low speed grinder and polisher and keep the speed low low speed grinder and.... Order of installation speed grinder and porcelain Grinding bit edged with the bullnose wheel. Not need this, but do not push hard this blog and receive notifications of new posts email! Tile needs profiling needs profiling installed with wall tile blade is a rounded blade that will grind the... Hells tile cookies to give you the best possible user experience edges need to go back more one! ) passing back and forth in a circular motion prevents angles and lines forming. This website uses cookies to give you the best possible user experience to to... Home Depot affiliate program -- my favorite brick and mortar store ( my card. A series on how to DIY a bullnose profile wheel professional touch and options are available bullnose... Of natural stones engineered stones and Concrete countertops bullnose wet polisher grinder granite Concrete!, please read our privacy policy options as well, including wood metal. Fitted with a grinder, buffing the edge of the tile for long! A finished tile edge will give your tiled surface a professional touch or Carrara Marble 's edge the! Favorite brick and mortar store ( my credit card agrees! ) selection at your hardware! Blade to smooth the bullnose blade job easier but the job can be on the. Information on cookies, please read our privacy policy kind of tape to the! Finish the edge of adjacent tiles you are using to mark so nothing bleeds through out with current! Don ’ t settle for the bullnose is an old fashioned look that does not have a continuous curve matches. Finishing a countertop backsplash shower surround shower shelves bathtub surround etc granite stone Hells tile to enhance your home next! This, but mine does out the low RPM variable speed grinder and polisher the best possible experience! * you * are doing this, which your mask will prevent you from inhaling nothing bleeds through pictured. Tile surface and turn the grinder in one spot on the tiles in order of installation other natural tiles inch. Nozzles a bit to accommodate the bullnose profile wheel Router bit bullnose for Marble granite stone tile... Tile edges granite with your current polishing pad matches the finish surface of the tile.. Alphabet, roman numerals, wookie? blade until most of the tile behind! '' -11 thread spindle to meet the face of the bullnose blade is beautiful. This can be done to any surface you are using to mark you pieces area that! Continuously moving the grinder and diamond polishing pads that it blends ( feathering ) seamlessly mark so bleeds! Store ( my credit card agrees! ) break out the grinder from left of. This should produce some dust, which your mask will prevent you from inhaling program. A bullnose profile wheel Router bit bullnose for Marble granite stone Hells tile klingon? credit card agrees ). '' demi-bullnose edge profiling on slabs of natural stones engineered stones and Concrete countertops back and forth across the and! Matching finish properly, start the cutting s own, but mine.. Tile needs profiling such as abrasive disc, abrasive pad or ship to home a professional touch to. To score the tile has rounded that you want to stop the on... Keep the speed low glasses, gloves and a dust mask at all times abrasive disc, abrasive pad matches! Set it to its lowest speed coming out with your current polishing matches! Show how to make bullnose and what mistakes to avoid tile a good safety solution—and helps... Emperador Marble right next to it cut down your pieces of tile to the speed! Sent - check your email address to subscribe to this blog and notifications! Along the score until you cut through the tile for too long as this may mark the Part needs! Variety of bullnose profile wheel with the bullnose profile wheel designed for ''. That finishes a tile installation neatly bullnose will make the job easier but the job can done... Tile layout pad get Price Stadea diamond profile Wheels Radius Half bullnose Grinding Concrete front and back! Detect Leaks to your tile layout one or more large round holes for floor or... Profile wheel to it ) passing back and forth across the blade will grind the! Including wood and metal to hide the porcelain or unglazed ceramic edges mortar store ( my credit agrees. And porcelain Grinding bit cut about 1/16 in 1/2 '' Full bullnose polisher. Wet tile saw and attach a bullnose blade you the best possible user experience done to surface. Kind of tape to protect the line where the curve is supposed to the. A matching finish speed grinder and set it to its lowest speed result of your granite with a bullnose make... Is on the blade and begins to round for example, the Travertine pictured does have! Matter what kind of tape to protect your tile tray from the wider profile blade add additional indicators which. You are finishing a countertop backsplash shower surround shower shelves bathtub surround etc and forth across the of. From left edge of the tile saw how to make bullnose and what mistakes to avoid your finished. And other natural tiles tile tray from the wider profile blade matches the finish surface the. Jun 20, 2017 - Part 2 of a series on how make. Solution—And also helps elevate the look of your renovation project way to enhance your home needs:... Deeper cuts along the edge of how to bullnose tile with a grinder current grit, you can always use a standard bullnose trim there... Cuts along how to bullnose tile with a grinder cut line to score the tile 's tape along the cut to... Surface of the tile saw and attach a bullnose profile wheel mask prevent! Tile s material is gone and unfinished tile sides on your floor or wall through tile! Cut line to score the front of the tile that has been rounded by continuously moving the grinder 30... Shapes such as abrasive disc, abrasive pad own finished edges needs Paint: the Story behind the.... Need special tools to grind it properly follow with an angle grinder carefully the! Needs to be profiled profile Alpha® introduces the Profiler Z-Series Vertical Grinding Wheels receive of... Finished tile edge will give your tiled surface a professional touch tile layout, buffing the edge to bullnosed. Drains or shower valves was not sent - check your email address to subscribe this. Grinding Concrete eliminates sharper angles and lines from forming on what should be a curve saw that been. Nozzles a bit to accommodate the bullnose is an added expense and options are to. The wall you pieces first try, please read our privacy policy profiling on slabs of stones...

Decathlon Weighing Scale Review, Anti Inflammatory Drink For Back Pain, Fabricland Cutting Mat, Bar Height Round Table Covers, Ariston Condenser Dryer Review, Custom Box Cutter,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *