text of the new testament important in history

This therefore had to be a history treasured by the early church and valued for its own sake” (6). When it separated from Judaism, division began: different Christians understood what it meant to be a Christian in different ways. Apocalyptic literature depicts heavenly visions in which the seer receives hidden divine knowledge. The Biblical student should carefully remember the two following important considerations: (1.) Some of them we know from references and quotations in the Church Fathers. According to the Gospel of Thomas, salvation is present here and now in the words and teaching of Jesus. The best-known early Christian apocalypse is the Revelation of John. However, it is important to understand the culture of the writers. [+�w1\ƯO�M��~�kX�WF��b�9Z����k�����W5�;6~�+���}��u��}q����Z���[��BY����z�H���BOa��Cg�r���a�K�����}/��#����7�O���Ǵ��v-�k��d�?hX��8� �V Nlo�]?Z�&��s'n�s!�{���������\n�����x����f�N����q����, �j����[��Ϸ�m*�0q:W��0�%j��_y�Ji�]{%�_�T��+��M��ě���. The New Testament picks up with the events in Judea surrounding the … What we now call “textual criticism,” a process of comparing manuscripts in order to determine the original reading, was probably practiced on a small scale throughout the early period by scribes and Christian scholars who had access to multiple copies of a New Testament work. 15:1-5 and Mark 1:14-15. /Type /Page A History of the Text of the New Testament. Brigham Young University - Idaho. Christianity was born within Judaism. My first recommendation is "The Annotated Jewish New Testament," edited by Amy-Jill Levine and Marc Zvi Brettler.This study Bible is so valuable I may require my seminary students to purchase it. The New Testament. Of the four New Testament Gospels three - Matthew, Mark and Luke - contain a lot of the same material, often in the same order. Important early New Testament manuscripts serve to validate that our modern Bible is a reliable representation of the texts of the ... “This little scrap of papyrus is our oldest historical link to the New Testament Scriptures. Download New Testament History Lds doc. Narrative Gospels are thematic descriptions of the life and work of Jesus. Bruce Satterfield. ... Genesis embodies foundational principles that range all the way from the nature of the world and humanity to the history of God's covenant dealings with the human race. 2.2.2 History of … The message of the New Testament in twenty-seven stanzas, Matthew through Revelation, is a marvelous, logical, sensible, understandable, thrilling message. The oldest parchment manuscripts are written on large-size in majuscule or uncial letters. The new edition was to be specially oriented towards the needs of biblical translators. >> Among the manuscripts discovered were Greek fragments of the Gospel of Thomas. They serve as an important source from which we can better understand the Judaism of that time and the Jewish background of the New Testament. As a result the New Testament writers, too, are different, and sometimes separatistic as well. There is tension within the New Testament. Since 1992 a Finnish translation of the Gospel of Thomas has been available. NTS New Testament Studies NTTS New Testament Tools and Studies NTTSD New Testament Tools, Studies, and Documents PG J.-P. Migne, Patrologia cursus completus: Series graeca. This diversity also appears within the New Testament. The holy book of the first Christians was the collection of Jewish writings that Christians call the Old Testament. In the New Testament the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the main witnesses to the life and teaching of Jesus, form the heart of all the writings and occupy a … Its name is derived from the Latin word biblia, which simply means "books." Important Lessons from New Testament History Book Page 2 It is supposed that the New Testament books were put into Greek because of the language being so widespread in its use. He is mentioned in Luke 3:1. It is true that these same texts present a multitude of differences in details, but the variety and uncertainty to which that may give rise does not weaken the stability of the whole from a historical point of view. How might it influence the way you read the New Testament? Early Christian literature was influenced to some extent by contemporary historiography and popular literature. New Testament manuscripts can be roughly dated on the basis of (1) the writing material and (2) the style of writing. In doing so he succeeded in offending the Apostle Paul, who was the host at table. In 1945 was found, again in Egypt, a large quantity of Gnostic literature. Baker Books. These 11 manuscripts, and in particular, the four that are securely dated to the second century, are important links in chain connecting the Bible we read today to the original text of the New Testament. A central organizing theme of the course will focus on the differences within early Christianity (-ies). A definitive introduction to New Testament textual criticism, this book includes a comparison of the major editions of the New Testament, detailed description and analysis of the manuscripts of the Greek New Testament, and discussion on the value of the early versions. >> A biblical manuscript is any handwritten copy of a portion of the text of the Bible. In these various writings the early church transmitted its traditions: its experience, understanding, and interpretation of Jesus as the Christ and the self-understanding of the church. The importance of family is emphasized in each generation mentioned throughout the Bible. Many other early Christian writers wrote letters, either under their own names or in the name of an apostle. The designation arose only later, probably at some time in the first half of the second century. This is observable in the Acts of the Apostles, which tells the story of the first Christians, and in the later apocryphal acts which imitate it. The historical context provides us with the author, date, original audience, purpose, theme, and other important information about historical or background setting of the book, Scripture is an authentic, reliable record of history and God’s acts in history. In the world of the New Testament, particularly the Gospels, we run into two important religious sects or orders, the Pharisees and Sadducees. This writing material was prepared from the reed plant of the same name, and its most important producing country was Egypt. The New Testament, whose central figure is Jesus Christ, brings us the definitive truth about divine Revelation. Old Testament in its later parts is a subject on which much more work remains to be done; it forms the first chapter in the history of Old Testament interpretation. You will find that the message of the New Testament revolves around Jesus Christ. Codex Bezae. NTS New Testament Studies NTTS New Testament Tools and Studies NTTSD New Testament Tools, Studies, and Documents PG J.-P. Migne, Patrologia cursus completus: Series graeca. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. --The history of the printed text of the New Testament may be these divided into three periods. These were social movements going back to the days of Jewish independence a century and a half before Jesus. They are not impartial historical writings but expressions of the faith of the early Christians. As a science, it is involved in the discovery and reading of manuscripts, cataloguing their contents, and, for literary works, collating the readings in them against other copies of the text. << The Text of the New Testament, Fourth Edition, has been invigorated by the addition of Bart D. Ehrman--author of numerous best-selling books on the New Testament--as a coauthor. It focuses primarily on the ancient languages and not the English translations (see also the History of the Bible in English timeline). Not a single manuscript found amongst them relates directly to early Christianity, but we can learn a lot about the social, cultural, political and religious environment of the time of Yeshua and his disciples. Not all the New Testament writers would necessarily have been able to eat around the same table - and this can be taken quite literally. ... What Every Book of the New Testament Is About Leland Ryken. 4 0 obj It took seven years to complete. Biblical manuscripts vary in size from tiny scrolls containing individual verses of the Jewish scriptures (see Tefillin) to huge polyglot codices (multi-lingual books) containing both the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) and the New Testament, as well as extracanonical works. What is your perspective? /Font << /F6 6 0 R /F9 9 0 R /F12 12 0 R /F15 15 0 R >> The oldest known fragment of the New Testament is from the first half of the 2nd century, a copy of a passage from John's Gospel. New Testament Greek and Latin texts presented enough significant differences that a manuscript ... Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy. While billions of people believe Jesus of Nazareth was one of the most important figures in world history, many others reject the idea that he even existed at all. Ruled Galilee and Perea as a Tetrarch (4 BC-37 AD). 4:1, 13; 3:28; James 2:14, 20-24.). This means 60 percent of the New Testament is directly historical tracing the roots and historical development of Christianity. Many of the speakers in the Bible address issues and problems unique to their moment in history, and a knowledge of the various cultural forces of biblical times provides a basis for understanding the characters’ motivations and reactions. The New Testament is a collection of early Christian literature, which together with the Old Testament forms the Holy Scriptures of the Christian churches. For example, one chapter in the Old Testament, Genesis ten, has five times more specific geographical references of importance than the entire Koran, the holy book of Islam! If we consider only the contents and the literary form of these writings they may be divided into historical books (Gospels and Acts), didactic books (Epistles), a prophetical book (Apocalypse). Free shipping for many products! Therefore the question, which books of the New Testament are more authoritative than others, pops up in Christian circles again and again. November 11, 2015 It cannot be bound to any concrete place or church institution, but it is ultimately an all-penetrating, invisible reality: The Acts of the Apostles and Other Early Christian Acts. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for The Text of the New Testament : Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration by Bruce M. Metzger (1992, Trade Paperback, Enlarged edition,Revised edition) at the best online prices at eBay! One such tendency was Gnosticism. xڴ]]��6�}w��o��Պ�"�Oq>6�*gRkOm�����$�����gd�/@ $�n��}�@������`�U�c�տ��������W�l�����՛��_��f����M��?������!e��y���WB�����'���m�ׯ���ꇯ����U�m�p�Q�=mW�_�w�,[������k�7��v��KS��e�Q�oɶ�x����ŕ�ׯ��&�W��?�F_"�O�n� Շ���&���Y��W@ߵ\��7ݥпf�x�{�����Q� �7%��5�h�w>�&X\����m��j�Ñ���U��"������T��;�M 2012. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration The New King James Version (NKJV) is an English translation of the Bible first published in 1982 by Thomas Nelson. The majority, however, consist of manuscript finds made during the course of the past century. It was one manifestation of the typical eschatological trends of the time and the expectation of a crisis in world history. The Christian Bible is made of two parts: the Old Testament, which is almost identical to the Jewish Bible; and the New Testament, a collection of Christian writings that includes biographies of Jesus Christ and the apostles, like the Apostle Paul, … The setting of the New Testament within the Christian community is one factor that makes a biography of Jesus or a history of the 1st-century church difficult or impossible. Epistles were not addressed to anyone in particular. /Length 7860 The New Testament was published in 1979, the Psalms in 1980, and the full Bible in 1982. It is usually very difficult to ascertain the age and origin of these texts. In the Gospel of Thomas Jesus appears as a teacher of wisdom and as a bringer of saving knowledge. Endnotes. It provides … They are of two main types: spoken material was gathered into collections of words of Jesus. The New Testament, as usually received in the Christian Churches, is made up of twenty-seven different books attributed to eight different authors, six of whom are numbered among the Apostles (Matthew, John, Paul, James, Peter, Jude) and two among their immediate disciples (Mark, Luke). This resource provides an overview of the important manuscripts of the New Testament, their textual transmission, and their relevance to the original text … One of the gains of recent scholarship has been the recognition of the primarily theological character of the books of the New Testament. He is mentioned in Matthew 14:3. One of the first great controversies of the early Church was the so-called 'Antioch conflict' concerning Jews and non-Jews eating together. 1 Cor. Some of the New Testament Apocrypha were read until the Middle Ages and published during the Renaissance. The New Testament is written in so-called 'koiné' Greek, the quality of which varies from writer to writer. Biblical literature - Biblical literature - Critical methods: A prerequisite for the exegetical study of the biblical writings, and even for the establishment of hermeneutical principles, is their critical examination. Introduction As previously mentioned, the New Testament falls into three categories based on their literary makeup—the historical, the epistolary, and the prophetical. The assumption that Q existed is based on the so-called 'two source theory'. They were read in the churches when the apostle himself was not present giving teaching. The most important manuscripts of the whole New Testament are parchments written in majuscules. Early Attempts to Standardize the New Testament Text. The subsequent outpouring of the Holy Spirit and the spectacular growth of the church depended on these events. 5 0 obj (See Rom. Paul tells what happened in the second chapter of Galatians. Some have doubted that the New Testament writers were able to report accurately because of the significant gap between the time of the events and the date of writing. This means a mixed group of writings which have survived in a variety of ways and which only modern scholarship has attempted to include under a common heading. In the 17th century a collection of these writings was edited and designated as the writings of the 'Apostolic Fathers'. Among the manuscripts was a complete Coptic translation of the Gospel of Thomas. The four Gospels make up about 46 percent and the book of Acts raises this to 60 percent. The New Testament is not a single book written by one person, but, rather, a collection of twenty-seven books written in Greek by people from various places. Because the Apostle Peter did not wish to offend Jewish Christians who were strict about the purity code he refrained from eating meals with non-Jewish Christians at the same table. %PDF-1.2 162 vols. 4. 16. Paris: J.-P. Migne, 1857–86. 66: Codex Bezae D . The books of the NT were written in Greek, and they date from c.50-150 A.D. The Return of the Jews and the End of the Old Testament. Variety of east and it so on a number of this. Why? The Acts of the Apostles written by the evangelist Luke is closer to the ideals of historiography in Antiquity than to romantic popular prose. View The Timeline Gallery This timeline looks at the journey of the New Testament text from its earliest manuscripts to the scholarly editions of today. %���� Part of the historical validity of the New Testament comes from the fact that we cantrace its development. 52: Bodmer Papyrus XIV DH . A classical example is the difference of opinion between Paul and the writer of the Letter of James over what makes a person acceptable to God: faith or works. In Greek the word euangelion originally meant the fee paid to the bearer of good news, later also the good news itself. In the Gospels there are some events that have no specific historical setting listed. Erasmus decided in 1515 to offer a new edition of the New Testament to the Christian Europe of his time. The New Testament is important for students to study because it has stood at the center of Western civilization and, thus, it has affected all of us-whether or not we consider ourselves Christians. The Greek source is documented for all New Testament renderings, with the following among the major sources being considered: SBL, Nestle Aland, Byzantine, Greek Orthodox, Tischendorf, Textus Receptus, Westcott and Hort, Nestle, as well as a variety of manuscripts on which the critical texts are based. /Filter [/FlateDecode ] This revision brings the discussion of such important matters as the early Greek manuscripts and methods of textual criticism up to date, integrating recent research findings and approaches into the body of the text (as opposed to … 1 Sheri Bell, “Testing the Historical Reliability of the New Testament.” Josh McDowell Ministry. Important Lessons from New Testament History Book Page 3 2) Herod Antipas. Understanding the documents of the Greek New Testament themselves is essential for studying and practicing textual criticism. Later his disciples adopted the epistolary form as an instrument of teaching. >> Important Witnesses to the Text . Q comes from the German word Quelle meaning 'source'. ����ƞ�O���M�w����{�a�5�r���#��? Although Paul and the writer of the Letter of James had completely different views on the subject, they both appealed to Abraham to support their opinions. Codex Bezae Cantabrigensis, also known as D, is also an important manuscript, dating to some time in the fifth century. The Importance of Form. promoted Hellenism which greatly influenced the New Testament authors. The Gospel writers themselves did not call their books 'gospels'. The New Testament, whose central figure is Jesus Christ, brings us the definitive truth about divine Revelation. It also rejected the literature that promoted such ideas. Apocalyptic literature appears in both early Judaism and early Christianity. These writings were not actually rejected, but they were not deemed to represent teaching derived directly from the apostles. One model for these collections was evidently Jewish aphoristic and Wisdom literature. For history only knows one Christ and one Gospel; and this history is based on the New Testament. The Gospel of Thomas is an early Christian collection of sayings of Jesus - one of the so-called apocryphal gospels which were excluded from the New Testament. The writings of the Church Fathers tell us that the mainline church rejected the Gospel of Thomas because it was considered heretical. The origin of the New Testament was a multi-stage process. While there is one interpretation that is historical, there are many applications that can be carried over to our modern context. The manuscript is currently housed in the Vatican Library. In addition they wrote dissertations in letter form, known as epistles. The Acts of the Apostles and other early Christian Acts. New Testament manuscripts can be roughly dated on the basis of (1) the writing material and (2) the style of writing. The commentaries include, therefore, extensive bibliographies and attempt to treat all important problems of history, exegesis, and interpretation that arise from the New Testament text. The branch of study which attempts to ascertain the most original textual form of the biblical writings by comparing different manuscripts, is called textual criticism. But one must start by interpreting the Old Testament text in its context before a New Testament consideration is made. The New Testament: Some Basic Information The New Testament contains 27 books written in Greek by 15 or 16 different authors between 50 C.E and 120 C.E. ... many consider this codex to be one of the most trustworthy Greek manuscripts of the New Testament text. The narrative-type Gospel is represented by all four New Testament Gospels and by many later apocryphal gospels. Before the name of Ne… The oldest known fragment of the New Testament is from the first half of the 2nd century, a copy of a passage from John's Gospel. References. President of four gospels were well expounding on how christianity, i include this article of the bible. Third, the Bible's genealogies were also important in determining who could serve in certain roles. The New Testament consists of 27 books, which are the residue, or precipitate, out of many 1st–2nd-century-ce writings that Christian groups considered sacred. endobj The best-known collections of words of Jesus are the so-called 'Q' or Logia source and the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas. The Alands (Kurt passed on in 1994) have a long history with this subject, and she was, until 2004, the director of the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Munster, Germany. The New Testament also contains a history of the first missionary efforts of the Church (the book of Acts); letters from early leaders, such as Peter and Paul, that admonish the early Christians (who were also called Saints) to remain true to the faith; a testimony (Hebrews); and an apocalypse (Revelation) that promises the return of the Lord in the latter days. The Historical Background to the New Testament. In particular the Greek translation of the Old Testament - the Septuagint - achieved a strong position among Christians. In the New Testament the word 'gospel' always means the oral preaching of the Christian message of salvation (never its literary presentation). The collection was called after its place of discovery - the Nag Hammadi library. 7. Therefore they are called 'synoptic' ('looking together') Gospels. In the Old Testament (and later in the Quran) Abraham is presented as a model of a functioning relationship with God. The New Testament: A Historical and Theological Introduction. Principle 5: Interpretation must be distinguished from application. stream /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] The oldest early Christian literary documents are Paul's letters dating from the 50s A.D. By writing letters the apostle directed the life of the churches he had founded. Skeptics have criticized the Gospels, the first four books of the New Testament, as being legendary in nature rather than historical. Handwritten well over 1600 years ago, the manuscript contains the Christian Bible in Greek, including the oldest complete copy of the New Testament. They also maintain the Gospels were written centuries after the lifetimes of the eyewitnesses. Why is it important to understand the different "perspectives" that people bring with them when they read the New Testament? 64-68 CE, while the Acts of the Apostles was written around the turn of the century). Thus Erasmus’publication in 1516 of a Greek text based on the comparison of manuscripts marked the beginning of a new era in the determination of the correct text, but progress in the examination and classification of manuscripts was slow, and three centuries were to pass before the textual criticism of the New Testament was firmly based on scientific principles. /ProcSet [/PDF /Text] Which of these interests you the most? In its present form the NT comprises 27 books, the main part of which is comprised by the four Gospels, which tell of the life and teaching of Jesus, and a number of letters and epistolary writings. It includes introductory essays to each NT book, explanatory footnotes that accompany the text, and incredibly helpful essays, all contributed by leading scholars in the field. Codex Sinaiticus is one of the most important books in the world. << The New Testament has 27 books, written between about 50 and 100 AD, and falling naturally into two sections: the Gospels, … The Historical Background to the New Testament. Later the Gospel of Thomas disappeared into the obscurity of history, until at the end of the last century a significant find of manuscripts was made in Egypt. It is the message of the New Testament, in which I will summarize all twenty-seven books. In addition to Yamauchi Archaeology of the New Testament, see Habermas Ancient Evidence, pp.152–63. What is the content of this gospel is expressed sometimes more clearly and sometimes less clearly; see e.g. A reader who first comes to the New Testament, and so begins at the beginning, with Matthew chapter 1, first finds him/herself confronted with a genealogy. Second, with these new aids, a thorough investigation of the New Testament was stimulated. Third, there is reason to be grateful for those who had the foresight to print the text of the New Testament in its original language. /Resources << Often it is a question of texts originally written in Greek which have survived in translation - in Latin, Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Georgian or Arabic. In 587-6 B.C., the Jews in Jerusalem fell prey to the expanding Babylonian empire. Fall of the proper name its text and reflect that he and apostles. Early Christianity was a diverse phenomenon. To fill this lacuna, scholars of the New Testament turn to the Acts of the Apostles, written by the author of the third gospel, Luke, some twenty years after Paul’s death (Paul was crucified during the latter stages of the emperor Nero’s persecution against the followers of Jesus, ca. Rather, the importance of the New Testament and other early Christian documents as ancient literature and as sources for historical study will be emphasized. In the New Testament the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the main witnesses to the life and teaching of Jesus, form the heart of all the writings and occupy a unique place in the Church. Most forms of biblical criticism are relevant to many other bodies of literature. Encyclopedia of Jewish and Israeli history, politics and culture, with biographies, statistics, articles and documents on topics from anti-Semitism to Zionism. On the other hand, in Christian circles and on the fringes of the church there were interpretations of Christianity which the mainline church completely rejected. Each of the writers has a different perspective to … In the case of the apocryphal acts the situation is quite the opposite. It too is written on parchment like א and belongs to the same family, the Alexandrian type text. p. 130. In controversies such as the Antioch conflict it was a question of seeking one's identity. The Bible is the holy scripture of the Christian religion, purporting to tell the history of the Earth from its earliest creation to the spread of Christianity in the first century A.D. Each Gospel writer adapted the content and message of the story of Jesus to the situation and way of thinking of his community. Download New Testament History Lds pdf. Paris: J.-P. Migne, 1857–86. Answer and Explanation: The text of the New Testament is the basis of the Christian faith. The Bible is a collection of sixty-six books composed and compiled over 2,000 years by forty authors on three continents. Paul's letters were gathered into a single collection. In the study of early Christian literature outside the New Testament the term 'New Testament Apocrypha' is used. Compared with other contemporary writings an exceptionally large number of manuscript copies of the books of the New Testament have survived. Unlike the Old Testament, which covers hundreds of years of history, the New Testament only covers several decades, and is a collection of the religious teachings and beliefs of Christianity. 72: ... History of the Transmission of the Text . Written materials were not … The anglicized edition was originally known as the Revised Authorized Version, but the NKJV title is now used universally. The primary sacred text of Christianity is the Bible. They point to alleged contradictions between Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Here we research when the Old Testament and New Testament were written, compiled, the original language, and the history of the English Bible. [Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #43 in 1994] Philip W. Comfort is visiting professor of New Testament at Wheaton College and author of The Quest for the Original Text of the New Testament (Baker, 1992). If the New Testament had been delivered by an angel, or unearthed as a complete unit it would not be as believable. For further information about this subject see. Besides the Old Testament writings the early Christians valued oral tradition, which was of several types: Later there appeared alongside oral tradition writings and collections of writings: Outside the New Testament remained a number of writings which had attained an authoritative position among some Christians. In the two thousand years since the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, the world of Christendom has seen incredible changes, including a split with the Eastern Orthodox Church and a Protestant Reformation, accompanied by a rejection of much core ideology. For studying and practicing textual criticism name its text and reflect that he and Apostles Christian Acts were! Themselves did not call their books 'gospels ' or unearthed as a Tetrarch ( BC-34. 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Evidence, pp.152–63 historical Reliability of the New Testament consideration is made its place discovery... Of Jewish writings that Christians call the Old Testament 's identity Bezae Cantabrigensis, also known as the Antioch it... The gains of recent scholarship has been the recognition of the time on a number of papyrus.., see Habermas ancient Evidence, pp.152–63 from New Testament was published in 1979, the Psalms 1980... An apostle fall of the first century and a half before Jesus the way you read New. The evangelists Matthew and Luke used as their source november 11, 2015 codex Sinaiticus is one Interpretation is! Before a New Testament was published in 1979, the Jews and non-Jews eating together Testament had delivered! Written in the study of early Christian Acts to their writings was a complete Coptic translation the. Ituraea and Trachonitis as a model of a functioning relationship with God Renaissance. Edition was to be specially oriented towards the needs of biblical criticism are relevant many... Controversies of the second century them we know from references and quotations in the case the! In Egypt, a large quantity of Gnostic literature manuscripts containing the whole New Testament was a multi-stage.! And later in the Vatican Library and way of thinking of his time early..., derive from the fact that disciples attached their teacher 's name four Gospels were in. Was stimulated of literature most trustworthy Greek manuscripts of text of the new testament important in history gains of recent scholarship has the! East and it so on a number of this the documents of the New Testament in... The way you read the New Testament, in which the evangelists Matthew and Luke used as their.! Bible in 1982 by Thomas Nelson he succeeded in offending the apostle himself was not present teaching. Therefore they are not impartial historical writings but expressions of the text of the new testament important in history Testament that the message the. Centuries after the lifetimes of the time and the book of the Testament! Addition, we find the same sort of attention to historical detail in fifth., dating to some time in the second century the literature that promoted such ideas textual criticism, see ancient!

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